5-300 Use of Force

5-301 PURPOSE (10/16/02) (08/17/07) (07/28/16)

A.    Sanctity of life and the protection of the public shall be the cornerstones of the MPD’s use of force policy.
B.     The purpose of this chapter is to provide all sworn MPD employees with clear and consistent policies and procedures regarding the use of force while engaged in the discharge of their official duties. (Note: MPD Training Unit Lesson Plans – Use of Force, are used as a reference throughout this chapter.)

5-301.01 POLICY (10/16/02) (08/17/07)

Based on the Fourth Amendment’s “reasonableness” standard, sworn MPD employees shall only use the amount of force that is objectively reasonable in light of the facts and circumstances known to that employee at the time force is used. The force used shall be consistent with current MPD training.

5-301.02 STATE REQUIREMENTS (10/11/02)

The MPD shall comply with Minn. Stat. §626.8452 to establish and enforce a written policy governing the use of force, including deadly force and state-mandated pre-service and in-service training in the use of force for all sworn MPD employees.(08/17/07)

5-302 USE OF FORCE DEFINITIONS (10/16/02) (10/01/10)

Active Aggression: Behavior initiated by a subject that may or may not be in response to police efforts to bring the person into custody or control. A subject engages in active aggression when presenting behaviors that constitute an assault or the circumstances reasonably indicate that an assault or injury to any person is likely to occur at any moment. (10/01/10) (04/16/12)

Active Resistance: A response to police efforts to bring a person into custody or control for detainment or arrest. A subject engages in active resistance when engaging in physical actions (or verbal behavior reflecting an intention) to make it more difficult for officers to achieve actual physical control. (10/01/10) (04/16/12)

Deadly Force: Minn. Stat. §609.066 states that: “Force which the actor uses with the purpose of causing, or which the actor should reasonably know creates a substantial risk of causing death or great bodily harm. The intentional discharge of a firearm other than a firearm loaded with less-lethal munitions and used by a peace officer within the scope of official duties, in the direction of another person, or at a vehicle in which another person is believed to be, constitutes deadly force.” (10/01/10)

Flight: Is an effort by the subject to avoid arrest or capture by fleeing without the aid of a motor vehicle. (10/01/10)

Great Bodily Harm: Bodily injury which creates a high probability of death, or which causes serious permanent disfigurement, or which causes a permanent or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ, or other serious bodily harm.

Non-Deadly Force: Force that does not have the reasonable likelihood of causing or creating a substantial risk of death or great bodily harm. This includes, but is not limited to, physically subduing, controlling, capturing, restraining or physically managing any person. It also includes the actual use of any less-lethal and non-lethal weapons. (08/17/07)

Objectively Reasonable Force: The amount and type of force that would be considered rational and logical to an “objective” officer on the scene, supported by facts and circumstances known to an officer at the time force was used. (08/17/07)

Passive Resistance: A response to police efforts to bring a person into custody or control for detainment or arrest. This is behavior initiated by a subject, when the subject does not comply with verbal or physical control efforts, yet the subject does not attempt to defeat an officer’s control efforts. (10/01/10) (04/16/12)

Use of Force: Any intentional police contact involving:(08/17/07) (10/01/10)

5-303 AUTHORIZED USE OF FORCE (10/16/02) (08/17/07)

Minn. Stat. §609.06 subd. 1 states, “When authorized…except as otherwise provided in subdivision 2, reasonable force may be used upon or toward the person of another without the other’s consent when the following circumstances exist or the actor reasonably believes them to exist:

When used by a public officer or one assisting a public officer under the public officer’s direction:

In addition to Minn. Stat. §609.06 sub. 1, MPD policies shall utilize the United States Supreme Court decision in Graham vs Connor as a guideline for reasonable force.

The Graham vs Connor case references that:

“Because the test of reasonableness under the Fourth Amendment is not capable of precise definition or mechanical application, its proper application requires careful attention to the facts and circumstances of each particular case, including:

The "reasonableness" of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of the reasonable officer on the scene, rather than with the 20/20 vision of hindsight.

The calculus of reasonableness must embody allowance for the fact that police officers are often forced to make split-second judgments - in circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving - about the amount of force that is necessary in a particular situation.”

Authorized use of force requires careful attention to the facts and circumstances of each case. Sworn MPD employees shall write a detailed, comprehensive report for each instance in which force was used.


5-303.01     DUTY TO INTERVENE (07/28/16)
A.    Sworn employees have an obligation to protect the public and other employees.
B.     It shall be the duty of every sworn employee present at any scene where physical force is being applied to either stop or attempt to stop another sworn employee when force is being inappropriately applied or is no longer required.
5-304          THREATENING THE USE OF FORCE AND DE-ESCALATION (10/16/02) (06/01/12) (07/28/16)
A.    Threatening the Use of Force
As an alternative and/or the precursor to the actual use of force, MPD officers shall consider verbally announcing their intent to use force, including displaying an authorized weapon as a threat of force, when reasonable under the circumstances. The threatened use of force shall only occur in situations that an officer reasonably believes may result in the authorized use of force. This policy shall not be construed to authorize unnecessarily harsh language. (08/17/07) (07/28/16)
B.     De-escalation
Whenever reasonable according to MPD policies and training, officers shall use de-escalation tactics to gain voluntary compliance and seek to avoid or minimize use of physical force. (06/01/12) (07/28/16)
1.      When safe and feasible, officers shall:
a.       Attempt to slow down or stabilize the situation so that more time, options and resources are available.
i.        Mitigating the immediacy of threat gives officers more time to call additional officers or specialty units and to use other resources.
ii.      The number of officers on scene may make more force options available and may help reduce overall force used.
b.      Consider whether a subject’s lack of compliance is a deliberate attempt to resist or an inability to comply based on factors including, but not limited to:
·         Medical conditions
·         Mental impairment
·         Developmental disability
·         Physical limitation
·         Language barrier
·         Influence of drug or alcohol use
·         Behavioral crisis
Such consideration, when time and circumstances reasonably permit, shall then be balanced against incident facts when deciding which tactical options are the most appropriate to resolve the situation safely.
2.      De-escalation tactics include, but are not limited to:
·         Placing barriers between an uncooperative subject and an officer.
·         Containing a threat.
·         Moving from a position that exposes officers to potential threats to a safer position.
·         Reducing exposure to a potential threat using distance, cover or concealment.
·         Communication from a safe position intended to gain the subject’s compliance, using verbal persuasion, advisements or warnings.
·         Avoidance of physical confrontation, unless immediately necessary (e.g. to protect someone or stop dangerous behavior).
·         Using verbal techniques to calm an agitated subject and promote rational decision making.
·         Calling additional resources to assist, including more officers, CIT officers and officers equipped with less-lethal tools.
5-305          AUTHORIZED USE OF DEADLY FORCE (08/17/07) (08/18/17)
  A.    Statutory Authorization
Minn. Stat. §609.066 sub. 2 – “The use of deadly force by a peace officer in the line of duty is justified only when necessary:
·         To protect the peace officer or another from apparent death or great bodily harm;
·         To effect the arrest or capture, or prevent the escape, of a person whom the peace officer knows or has reasonable grounds to believe has committed or attempted to commit a felony involving the use or threatened use of deadly force, or;
·         To effect the arrest or capture, or prevent the escape, of a person who the officer knows or has reasonable grounds to believe has committed or attempted to commit a felony if the officer reasonably believes that the person will cause death or great bodily harm if the person’s apprehension is delayed.”
 B.     United States Supreme Court: Tennessee v. Garner
In addition to Minn. Stat. §609.066, MPD policies shall utilize the United States Supreme Court decision in Tennessee v. Garner as a guideline for the use of deadly force.
The Tennessee v. Garner case references that:
“Apprehension by the use of deadly force is a seizure subject to the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement.”
“The use of deadly force to prevent the escape of all felony suspects, whatever the circumstances, is constitutionally unreasonable.”
  C.    Sworn MPD employees shall recognize that:
·         The use of a firearm, vehicle, less-lethal or non-lethal weapon, or other improvised weapon may constitute the use of deadly force.
·         This policy does not prevent a sworn employee from drawing a firearm, or being prepared to use a firearm in threatening situations.
     D.    For the safety of the public, warning shots shall not be fired.
     E.     Moving/Fleeing Motor Vehicles
1.      Officers are strongly discouraged from discharging firearms at or from a moving motor vehicle.
2.      Officers should consider their positioning and avoid placing themselves in the path of a vehicle when possible. If officers find themselves positioned in the path of a vehicle they should, when possible, tactically consider moving out of the path of the vehicle instead of discharging a firearm at it or any of its occupants.
      F.     Officers’ Actions that Unnecessarily Place Themselves, Suspects, or the Public at Risk
1.      Officers shall use reasonableness, sound tactics and available options during encounters to maximize the likelihood that they can safely resolve the situation.
2.      A lack of reasonable or sound tactics can limit options available to officers, and unnecessarily place officers and the public at risk.


Any sworn MPD employee who uses force shall comply with the following requirements:
Medical Assistance:  As soon as reasonably practical, determine if anyone was injured and render medical aid consistent with training and request Emergency Medical Service (EMS) if necessary.
Supervisor Notification and CAPRS Reporting Requirements
      No CAPRS Report Required
Unless an injury or alleged injury has occurred, the below listed force does not require a CAPRS report or supervisor notification.
·         Escort Holds
·         Joint Manipulations
·         Nerve Pressure Points (Touch Pressure)
·         Handcuffing
·         Gun drawing or pointing
    CAPRS Report Required – No Supervisor Notification required
The following listed force requires a CAPRS report, but does not require supervisor notification.
·         Takedown Techniques
·         Chemical Agent Exposures
   CAPRS Report Required - Supervisor Notification Required
All other force, injuries or alleged injury incidents require both a CAPRS report and supervisor notification. The sworn employee shall remain on scene and immediately notify a supervisor by phone or radio of the force that was used.
           Supervisors shall not conduct a force review on their own use of force.  Any other supervisor of any rank shall conduct the force review. (04/16/12)
          A CAPRS report entitled “FORCE” shall be completed as soon as practical, but no later than the end of that shift. A supplement describing the use of force incident in detail shall be completed and entered directly into the CAPRS reporting system (no handwritten force reports). Employees shall ensure that all applicable force portions of the CAPRS report are completed in full.
        Sworn employees shall complete a CAPRS report entitled "PRIORI" for all incidents in which a person has a prior injury, or prior alleged injury, and there is actual physical contact or transportation by the police.
   Transfer of Custody
Prior to transferring custody of a subject that force was used upon, sworn MPD employees shall verbally notify the receiving agency or employee of:
·         The type of force used,
·         Any injuries sustained (real or alleged) and 
·         Any medical aid / EMS rendered
5-307          SUPERVISOR FORCE REVIEW (08/17/07) (12/15/09)


On-duty Supervisor Responsibilities
The supervisor who is notified of a Use of Force incident by any sworn MPD employee shall:
1.      Determine if the incident meets the criteria for a Critical Incident. If so, follow Critical Incident Policy (P/P 7-810). (09/23/15)
2.      Instruct the involved employees to have the subject of the use of force remain on-scene until the supervisor arrives, if it is reasonable to do so.
·         If the subject of the use of force does not remain on-scene, the supervisor shall go to the subject’s location, if necessary, to complete the investigation.
3.      Respond to the incident scene and conduct a preliminary investigation of the Use of Force incident. (09/23/15)
a.       Debrief the employee(s) who engaged in the use of force.
b.      Note any reported injury (actual or alleged) to any individual involved.
c.       Photograph: (09/23/15)
·         the force subject, including any visible injuries
·         the immediate area of the force event
·         injuries to any other individual involved in the force event
·         damage to equipment or uniforms caused by the force event
d.      Note any medical aid/EMS rendered to any individual involved.
e.       Locate and review any evidence related to the force incident (e.g. MVR, security video, private cameras, etc.). (12/15/09)
f.       Ensure any on-scene evidence is preserved and collected.
g.      Locate and identify witnesses to the use of force incident. (12/15/09)
h.      Obtain statements from witnesses to the use of force incident.
i.        Contact the Internal Affairs Unit Commander immediately by phone if the force used appears to be unreasonable or appears to constitute possible misconduct. (04/16/12)
4.      Complete and submit the Supervisor Use of Force Review and Summary in CAPRS as soon as practical, but prior to the end of that shift.
a.       Ensure that all actions taken in the preliminary investigation process and the information obtained from these actions are included in the Summary and that all other relevant information is entered in the appropriate sections of the report. (12/15/09)
b.  If, based upon the totality of the information available at the time of the report, the supervisor feels that the use of force may have been unreasonable or not within policy, the supervisor will: (04/16/12)
·         State in the supervisor force review that they believe the use of force requires further review; and
·         Notify the commander of Internal Affairs of their findings that the force requires further review.
5.      Review all sworn employees’ CAPRS reports and supplements related to the use of force incident for completeness and accuracy.

5-308 NOTIFICATION OF FIREARM DISCHARGES (10/16/02) (04/30/15)

A.    Employee Responsibility
Any employee who discharges a firearm, whether on or off duty, shall make direct contact with their immediate supervisor or the on-duty Watch Commander and the local jurisdiction as soon as possible except: (08/17/07) (04/30/15) (04/05/16)
·         While at an established target range;
·         While conducting authorized ballistics tests;
·         When engaged in legally recognized activities while off-duty.
B.     Supervisor Responsibility
1.      The supervisor shall respond to any scene in which an employee has discharged a firearm while on-duty or in the course of duty. (04/30/15) (04/05/16)
2.      The supervisor is responsible for notifying the Watch Commander and when appropriate, the employee’s Deputy Chief and the on-duty Homicide investigator. This does not include the discharge of a firearm with the intention of dispatching an animal, unless it results in injury to a person. (04/30/15) (04/05/16)
3.      Notifications to the Internal Affairs Unit shall be made in accordance with the Internal Affairs Call-Out Notification Policy (P/P 2-101). (04/05/16)
4.      The advised supervisor shall ensure that drug and alcohol testing is conducted in accordance with the conditions and procedures in the MPD Drug & Alcohol Testing Policy (P/P Section 3-1000). (04/30/15)
5.      At any officer-involved shooting incident in which a person is shot, the Critical Incident Policy (P/P Section 7-800) shall be followed. (04/30/15)
C.    Reporting Firearms Discharges to the State (10/16/02) (04/30/15)
Minn. Stat. §626.553 requires the Chief of Police to report to the State Commissioner of Public Safety whenever a peace officer discharges a firearm in the course of duty, other than for training purposes or when killing an animal that is sick, injured or dangerous. Written notification of the incident must be filed within 30 days of the incident. The notification shall include information concerning the reason for and circumstances surrounding discharge of the firearm. The Internal Affairs Unit supervisor shall be responsible for filing the required form(s) with the State Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. (04/05/16)



All employee firearm discharges that require notification, other than Critical Incidents, shall be reported in CAPRS, including a supplement, by the employee involved and the supervisor who was notified. The report shall be titled, “DISWEAP.” The supervisor shall then complete a Supervisor Force Review. (08/17/07)

If the involved employee is unable to make a CAPRS report, the supervisor shall initiate the CAPRS report.

The Watch Commander shall include all case numbers on the Watch Commander log.

5-310 USE OF UNAUTHORIZED WEAPONS (10/16/02) (08/17/07)

Sworn MPD employees shall only carry and use MPD approved weapons for which they are currently trained and authorized to use through the MPD Training Unit. If an exigent circumstance exists that poses an imminent threat to the safety of the employee or the public requiring the immediate use an improvised weapon of opportunity, the employee may use the weapon. (08/17/07)

5-311 USE OF NECK RESTRAINTS AND CHOKE HOLDS (10/16/02) (08/17/07) (10/01/10) (04/16/12)


Choke Hold: Deadly force option. Defined as applying direct pressure on a person’s trachea or airway (front of the neck), blocking or obstructing the airway (04/16/12)

Neck Restraint: Non-deadly force option. Defined as compressing one or both sides of a person’s neck with an arm or leg, without applying direct pressure to the trachea or airway (front of the neck). Only sworn employees who have received training from the MPD Training Unit are authorized to use neck restraints. The MPD authorizes two types of neck restraints: Conscious Neck Restraint and Unconscious Neck Restraint. (04/16/12)

Conscious Neck Restraint: The subject is placed in a neck restraint with intent to control, and not to render the subject unconscious, by only applying light to moderate pressure. (04/16/12)

Unconscious Neck Restraint: The subject is placed in a neck restraint with the intention of rendering the person unconscious by applying adequate pressure. (04/16/12)


  1. The Conscious Neck Restraint may be used against a subject who is actively resisting. (04/16/12)
  2. The Unconscious Neck Restraint shall only be applied in the following circumstances: (04/16/12)
    1. On a subject who is exhibiting active aggression, or;
    2. For life saving purposes, or;
    3. On a subject who is exhibiting active resistance in order to gain control of the subject; and if lesser attempts at control have been or would likely be ineffective.
  3. Neck restraints shall not be used against subjects who are passively resisting as defined by policy. (04/16/12)
  4. After Care Guidelines (04/16/12)
    1. After a neck restraint or choke hold has been used on a subject, sworn MPD employees shall keep them under close observation until they are released to medical or other law enforcement personnel.
    2. An officer who has used a neck restraint or choke hold shall inform individuals accepting custody of the subject, that the technique was used on the subject.

5-312 CIVIL DISTURBANCES (08/17/07)

Civil disturbances are unique situations that often require special planning and tactics to best bring an unlawful situation under effective control. The on-scene incident commander shall evaluate the overall situation and determine if it would be a reasonable force option to use less-lethal or non-lethal weapons to best accomplish that objective.

Unless there is an immediate need to protect oneself or another from apparent physical harm, sworn MPD employees shall refrain from deploying any less-lethal or non-lethal weapons upon any individuals involved in a civil disturbance until it has been authorized by the on-scene incident commander.

The riot baton is a less-lethal weapon that shall only be deployed for carry or use during, or in anticipation to, a civil disturbance.


5-313 USE OF CHEMICAL AGENTS – POLICY (10/16/02) (08/17/07) (10/01/10) (09/04/12)

The MPD approved chemical agent is considered a non-lethal use of force. The use of chemical agents shall be consistent with current MPD training and MPD policies governing the use of force (Policy and Procedure Manual, Sections 5-300 Use of Force).

Chemical agents, regardless of canister size, shall only be used against subjects under the following circumstances: (06/10/13)

·         On subjects who are exhibiting Active Aggression, or;

·         For life saving purposes, or;

·         On subjects who are exhibiting active resistance in order to gain control of a subject and if lesser attempts at control have been or would likely be ineffective, or; (06/10/13)

 ·        During crowd control situations if authorized by a supervisor. (See 5-312 Civil Disturbances) (09/04/12) (06/10/13)

Chemical agents shall not be used against persons who are only displaying Passive Resistance as defined by policy. (09/04/12) (06/10/13)

Sworn MPD employees shall exercise due care to ensure that only intended persons are exposed to the chemical agents.



Post exposure treatment (Medical Aid) for a person that has been exposed to the chemical agent shall include one or more of the following:

Sworn employees shall keep a person exposed to the chemical agent under close observation until they are released to medical or other law enforcement personnel. An officer who has used a chemical agent shall inform individuals accepting custody that it was used on the person.

Use of chemical agents to prevent the swallowing of narcotics is prohibited.

A CAPRS report shall be completed when chemical agents are used.


Drive Stun: When a CED with no cartridge or a spent cartridge is placed in direct contact with the body with no documented effort to attempt three point contact.

Probe Mode: When a CED is used to fire darts at a person for the purpose of incapacitation.

Exigent Circumstances: Circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to believe that immediate action is necessary to prevent physical harm from occurring to anyone.

Red Dotting: Un-holstering and pointing a CED at a person and activating the laser aiming device. In some cases, this may be effective at gaining compliance without having to actually discharge a CED. Also known as “painting” the target.

Arcing: Un-holstering the CED and removing the cartridge and activating the CED for purposes of threatening its use prior to actual deployment. In some cases, this may be effective at gaining compliance without having to actually discharge a CED at a subject.

5-314.01    USE OF CONDUCTED ENERGY DEVICES (CED) – POLICY (10/01/10) (07/16/12)


The MPD approved Conducted Energy Device (CED) (Policy and Procedure Manual, Section 3-200 Equipment) is considered a less-lethal weapon. The use of CED’s shall be consistent with current MPD training and MPD policies governing the use of force (Policy and Procedure Manual, Section 5-300 Use of Force). (07/16/12)


MPD officers are only authorized to carry CEDs that are issued by the department. Personally owned Tasers, or those issued by another agency, are not authorized to be carried or utilized while an MPD officer is acting in their official MPD capacity. (10/07/13)

The use of CED’s shall only be permitted against subjects under the following circumstances:


1.    On subjects who are exhibiting active aggression, or;


2.    For life saving purposes, or;


3.    On subjects who are exhibiting active resistance in order to gain control of a subject and if lesser attempts at control have been or would likely be ineffective.


CED’s shall not be used against subjects who are demonstrating passive resistance as defined by policy. (07/16/12)


The preferred method for use of CED’s is in the probe mode. Use of CED’s in the drive stun mode shall be limited to defensive applications and/or to gain control of a subject who is exhibiting active aggression or exhibiting active resistance if lesser attempts at control have been ineffective.


When using a CED, personnel should use it for one standard cycle (a standard cycle is five seconds) and pause to evaluate the situation to determine if subsequent cycles are necessary. If subsequent cycles are necessary, officers should restrict the number and duration to only the minimum amount necessary to control and/or place the subject in custody under the existing circumstances. Personnel should constantly reassess the need for further activations after each CED cycle and should consider that exposure to multiple applications of the CED for longer than 15 second may increase the risk of serious injury or death.


Note: Officers should be aware that a lack of change in a subject’s behavior often indicates that the electrical circuit has not been completed or is intermittent. When this is the case officers should immediately reload and fire another cartridge rather than administering continued ineffective cycles.


Unless exigent circumstances exist as defined by policy, no more than one officer should intentionally activate a CED against a subject at one time.


Officers shall, unless it is not feasible to do so, give verbal warnings and/or announce their intention to use a CED prior to actual discharge. Use of the CED’s laser pointer (red dotting) or arcing of the CED may be effective at diffusing a situation prior to actual discharge of the CED.


The CED shall be holstered on the sworn MPD employee’s weak (support) side to avoid the accidental drawing or firing of their firearm. (SWAT members in tactical gear are exempt from this holstering requirement.)


Lost, damaged or inoperative CED’s shall be reported to the CED Coordinator immediately upon the discovery of the loss, damage or inoperative condition. (07/16/12)

Officers who use their MPD issued CED device during the scope of off-duty employment within the City shall follow MPD policy and procedure for reporting the use of force and downloading their device. (07/16/12)


If officers carry their MPD issued CED during the scope of off-duty employment outside of the City (e.g. working for another law enforcement agency) that agency shall sign a waiver (Letter of Agreement for Off Duty Employment) which indicates that certification through the Minneapolis Police Department is sufficient for use while working for that agency. (07/16/12)




Officers must consider the possible heightened risk of injury and adverse societal reaction to the use of CED’s upon certain individuals. Officers must be able to articulate a correspondingly heightened justification when using a CED upon:


Prior to using a CED on a subject in flight the following should be considered:


In the following situations, CED’s should not be used unless the use of deadly force would otherwise be permitted:


Officers are required to report all actual use of their CED consistent with the downloading and reporting guidelines outlined below. (07/16/12)

CED Downloading guidelines:

CED Reporting guidelines:


Post exposure treatment (Medical Aid) for a person that has been exposed to the electricity from the CED shall include the following:

  1. Determine if the subject is injured or requires EMS.
  2. Render medical aid consistent with training and request EMS response for evaluation at anytime if necessary
  3. Request EMS response for probe removal if probes are located in sensitive areas (face, neck, groin or breast areas).
  4. Wear protective gloves and remove probes from the person’s non-sensitive body areas.
  5. Secure the probes (biohazard “sharps”) point down into the expended cartridge and seal with a safety cover.
  6. When appropriate, visually inspect probe entry sites and/or drive stun locations for signs of injury.
  7. When appropriate, photograph probe entry sites and/or drive stun locations.

Sworn employees shall routinely monitor the medical condition of a person who has been exposed to the electricity from a CED until they are released to medical or other law enforcement personnel and inform individuals accepting custody that a CED was used on the person. (10/01/10)

5-315 USE OF IMPACT WEAPONS - POLICY (08/17/07) (10/01/10)

The MPD approved impact weapons (Policy and Procedure Manual, Section 3-200 Equipment) are considered less-lethal weapons. The use of impact weapons shall be consistent with current MPD Training and MPD policies governing the use of force (Policy and Procedure Manual, Section 5-300).

Strikes from impact weapons shall only be administered under the following circumstances:

Strikes from impact weapons shall not be administered to persons who are non-compliant as defined by policy.


Treatment (Medical Aid) for a person that has been struck with an impact weapon shall include the following:

Sworn employees shall routinely monitor the medical condition of a person that has been struck with an impact weapon until they are released to medical or other law enforcement personnel. An officer who has used an impact weapon shall inform individuals accepting custody that it was used on the person. (10/01/10)


5-316          MAXIMAL RESTRAINT TECHNIQUE (05/29/02) (06/13/14) (07/13/17) (04/02/18)


I.             PURPOSE

To establish a policy on the use of “hobble restraint devices” and the method of transporting prisoners who have been handcuffed with a hobble restraint applied.

II.          POLICY

The hobble restraint device may be used to carry out the Maximal Restraint Technique, consistent with training offered by the Minneapolis Police Department on the use of the Maximal Restraint Technique and the Use of Force Policy.


Hobble Restraint Device: A device that limits the motion of a person by tethering both legs together. Ripp Hobble ™ is the only authorized brand to be used.

Maximal Restraint Technique (MRT): Technique used to secure a subject’s feet to their waist in order to prevent the movement of legs and limit the possibility of property damage or injury to him/her or others.

Prone Position: For purposes of this policy, the term Prone Position means to lay a restrained subject face down on their chest.

Side Recovery Position: Placing a restrained subject on their side in order to reduce pressure on his/her chest and facilitate breathing.


A.    Maximal Restraint Technique – Use (06/13/14)

    1. The Maximal Restraint Technique shall only be used in situations where handcuffed subjects are combative and still pose a threat to themselves, officers or others, or could cause significant damage to property if not properly restrained.

2.      Using the hobble restraint device, the MRT is accomplished in the following manner:

a.       One hobble restraint device is placed around the subject’s waist.

b.      A second hobble restraint device is placed around the subject’s feet.

c.       Connect the hobble restraint device around the feet to the hobble restraint device around the waist in front of the subject.

d.      Do not tie the feet of the subject directly to their hands behind their back. This is also known as a hogtie.

3.      A supervisor shall be called to the scene where a subject has been restrained using the MRT to evaluate the manner in which the MRT was applied and to evaluate the method of transport.

B.     Maximal Restraint Technique – Safety (06/13/14)

1.      As soon as reasonably possible, any person restrained using the MRT who is in the prone position shall be placed in the following positions based on the type of restraint used:

a.       If the hobble restraint device is used, the person shall be placed in the side recovery position.

2.      When using the MRT, an EMS response should be considered.

3.      Under no circumstances, shall a subject restrained using the MRT be transported in the prone position.

4.      Officers shall monitor the restrained subject until the arrival of medical personnel, if necessary, or transfer to another agency occurs.

5.      In the event any suspected medical conditions arise prior to transport, officers will notify paramedics and request a medical evaluation of the subject or transport the subject immediately to a hospital.

6.      A prisoner under Maximal Restraint should be transported by a two-officer squad, when feasible. The restrained subject shall be seated upright, unless it is necessary to transport them on their side. The MVR should be activated during transport, when available.

7.      Officers shall also inform the person who takes custody of the subject that the MRT was applied.

C.    Maximal Restraint Technique – Reporting (06/13/14)

1.      Anytime the hobble restraint device is used, officers’ Use of Force reporting shall document the circumstances requiring the use of the restraint and the technique applied, regardless of whether an injury was incurred.

2.      Supervisors shall complete a Supervisor’s Force Review.

3.      When the Maximal Restraint Technique is used, officers’ report shall document the following:

·         How the MRT was applied, listing the hobble restraint device as the implement used.

·         The approximate amount of time the subject was restrained.

·         How the subject was transported and the position of the subject.

·         Observations of the subject’s physical and physiological actions (examples include: significant changes in behavior, consciousness or medical issues).


I.             PURPOSE

A. The MPD recognizes that combative, non-compliant, armed and or otherwise violent subjects cause handling and control problems that require special training and equipment. The MPD has adopted the less-lethal force philosophy to assist with the de-escalation of these potentially violent confrontations.

B. This policy addresses the use of the less-lethal 40mm launcher and the 40mm less-lethal round. The deployment of the 40mm launcher is not meant to take the place of deadly force options.


40mm Less-Lethal round: Direct fire round used in situations where maximum deliverable energy is desired for the incapacitation of an aggressive, non-compliant subject.


A. This policy applies to officers who are not working in a certified SWAT capacity.

B. The 40mm launcher with the 40mm less-lethal round should not be used in deadly force situations without firearm backup.

1.      The use of the 40mm less-lethal round should be considered a level slightly higher than the use of an impact weapon and less than deadly force when deployed to areas of the suspect’s body that are considered unlikely to cause death or serious physical injury.

2.      Prior to using less-lethal options, officers need to consider any risks to the public or themselves.

3.      When using the 40mm less-lethal round, consideration shall be given as to whether the subject could be controlled by any other reasonable means without unnecessary risk to the subject, officers, or to the public, in accordance with knowledge and training in use of force and MPD policies governing the use of deadly and non-deadly force.

C. Only officers trained in the use of the 40mm launcher and 40mm less-lethal round are authorized to carry and use them.

D. Officers shall not deploy 40mm launchers for crowd management purposes.


A.    Standard projectiles

    1. Officers shall only carry MPD-approved 40mm rounds. Ammunition specifications are available from the Range Master.
    2. The MPD Range shall issue 40mm rounds with each launcher depending on the needs of the 40mm Operator Program. The MPD Range shall replace any rounds used or damaged as needed.  

B.     Target areas

1.      The primary target areas for the 40mm less-lethal round should be the large muscle groups in the lower extremities including the buttocks, thigh, knees. Alternative target areas include the ribcage area to the waist, and the larger muscle areas of the shoulder areas. Areas to avoid when using the 40mm less-lethal round are the head, neck, spinal cord, groin and kidneys.

2.      Officers shall be aware that the delivery of the 40mm impact projectiles to certain parts of the human body can cause grievous injury that can lead to a permanent physical or mental incapacity or possible death. Areas susceptible to death or possible severe injury are the head, neck, throat and chest (in vicinity of the heart). Unless deadly force is justified, officers should avoid the delivery of 40mm impact projectiles to any of the above-described areas.

C.    Deployment

1.      The 40mm launchers can be used when the incapacitation of a violent or potentially violent subject is desired. The 40mm launcher can be a psychological deterrent and physiological distraction serving as a pain compliance device.

2.      If a supervisor or responding officers believe that there is a call or incident that may require the use of less-lethal capability, they may request via radio or other means that an on-duty MPD-trained operator with a 40mm launcher respond to the scene.

3.      Officers shall announce over the radio that a 40mm launcher will be used, when time and tactics permit.

a.       It is important that whenever possible, all officers involved and possible responding officers know that a 40mm less-lethal projectile is being deployed so they do not mistake the sight and noise from the deployment as a live ammunition discharge.

b.      40mm launchers have an orange barrel indicating they are the less-lethal platform.

4.      When appropriate given the situation, officers firing a 40mm less-lethal projectile should yell "Code Orange!" prior to and during firing.  

D.    Carrying and storage

1.      40mm launchers shall be assigned to each precinct, City Hall and specialty units as needed.

a.       Each 40mm launcher shall be kept its own case and in a secured gun locker.

b.      Only commanders or their designee and MPD-trained operators will have keys to the 40mm armory lockers. 

2.      MPD-trained operators shall carry the 40mm launchers during their assigned shift, when available.  

E.   Maintenance of 40mm launchers

Only MPD certified Range personnel shall perform maintenance and repairs to the 40mm launcher.



F.    Subjects injured by 40mm less-lethal projectiles

1.      Medical assistance shall be rendered as necessary in accordance with P&P 5-306 and the Emergency Medical Response policy (P&P 7-350).

2.      If possible, photographs should be taken of any injuries to the suspect.

G.    Use of Force reporting

1.      Officers that deploy a 40mm less-lethal round shall report the force in accordance with P&P 5-316, and shall complete a report entitled "FORCE."

2.      Officers who deploy a less-lethal round shall immediately notify dispatch, who will notify a supervisor.

3.      A supervisor shall respond to the scene any time a 40mm less-lethal round is used. The responding supervisor shall review the incident and complete a use of force review in accordance with P&P 5-307.   

4.      Supervisors shall ensure that all spent 40mm less-lethal rounds are collected and property inventoried if possible.


Last updated Jul 16, 2019



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