Public safety reading list

Find links to articles and books Council Member Phillipe Cunningham has read over the years to develop his public safety analysis. Some of the information was later found not to be best practice. How

Public health approach

Multi‐sectoral health promotion and public health: The role of evidence
Armstrong, R., Doyle, J., Lamb, C., & Waters, E. (2006). Journal of Public Health, 28(2), 168–172.

The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human-motivation
Baumeister, R.F. & Leary, M.R. (1995). Psychological Bulletin 117(3): 497-529.

Community violence: Causes, prevention, and intervention
Bell, C.C. (1997). Journal of the National Medical Association 89(10): 657-662.

Public health: A very short introduction
Berrigde, V. (2016). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Violence: A public health menace and a public health approach
Bloom, S. L. (2001). London, UK: Karnac Books.

The crime drop in America
Blumstein, A., & Wallman, J. (2006). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press

Preventing violence: A guide to implementing the recommendations of the world report on violence and health
Butchart, A., Phinney, A., Check, P., & Villaveces, A. (2004). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., … Poulton, R. (2002). Science, 297, 851–854.

The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Prevention
Centers for Disease Control. (28 January 2020).

Editorial: Gun violence—Risk, consequences, and prevention
Cerda, M. (2016). American Journal of Epidemiology, 183(6), 516–517.

History of violence as a public health issue
Dahlberg, L., & Mercy, J. (2009). The Virtual Mentor: VM, 11(2), 167–172.

The future of injury and violence prevention: Where are we going?
Degutis, L. C. (2012). Journal of Safety Research, 43(4), 231–232.

Social contagion of violence
Fagan, J., Wilkinson, D.L., and Davies, G. (2007). The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior, D. Flannery ed. 

On suffering and structural violence: A view from below
Farmer, P. (1996). Daedalus, 125(1), 261–283.

Can a costly intervention be cost‐effective? An analysis of violence prevention
Foster, E. M., & Jones, D. (2006). Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(11), 1284–1291.

Violence: Reflections on a national epidemic
Gilligan, J. (1997). New York: Vintage Books.

Commentary on subgroup analysis in intervention research: Opportunities for the public health approach to violence prevention
Haegerich, T. M., & Massetti, G. M. (2013). Prevention Science, 14(2), 193–198.

Trauma and recovery: The aftermath of violence—from domestic abuse to political terror
Herman, J. L (1992). New York, NY: Basic Books.

The economic cost of violence containment
Institute for Economics and Peace. (2014). Sydney, Australia

Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures
Lee, B.X. (2019). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Violence, health, and the 2030 agenda: Merging evidence and implementation
Lee, B. X., Donnelly, P. D., Cohen, L., & Garg, S. (2016). Journal of Public Health Policy, 37(S1), 1–12.

Violence and health: Current perspectives of the WHO violence prevention alliance
Lee, B. X., Leckman, J. F., & Mbwambo, J. K. K. (2014). Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(6), 609–615.

Economic correlates of violent death rates in forty countries, 1962–2008: A cross‐typological analysis
Lee, B. X., Marotta, P. L., Blay‐Tofey, M., Wang, W., & de Bourmont, S. (2014). Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(6), 729–737.

Political correlates of violent death rates in the U.S., 1900–2010: Longitudinal and cross‐sectional analyses
Lee, B. X., Wexler, B. E., & Gilligan, J. (2014). Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(6), 721–728.

Public health policy for preventing violence
Mercy, J. A., Rosenberg, M. L., Powell, K. E., Broome, C. V., & Roper, W. L. (1993). Health Affairs, 12(4), 7–29.

Understanding relationships among trauma, post‐traumatic stress disorder, and health outcomes
Schnurr, P. P., & Green, B. L. (2004). Advances in Mind‐Body Medicine, 20(1), 18–29.

Violence is a contagious disease
Slutkin, G. (2012). Contagion of violence: Workshop summary. D. M. Patel, M. A. Simon, & R. M. Taylor (Eds.) (pp. 94–111).

Violence in the United States: Status, challenges, and opportunities
Sumner, S. A., Mercy, J. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Hillis, S. D., Klevens, J., & Houry, D. (2015). JAMA, 314(5), 478–488.

The costs of interpersonal violence—An international review
Waters, H. R., Hyder, A. A., Rajkotia, Y., Basu, S., & Butchart, A. (2005). Health Policy, 73(3), 303–315.

The cycle of violence
Widom, C. S. (1989). Science, 244(4901), 160–166. Updated version

Violence as a public health problem: An ecological study of 169 countries
Wolf, A., Gray, R., & Fazel, S. (2014). Social Science and Medicine, 104(100), 220–227.

Prevention of violence: A public health priority
World Health Assembly. (1996). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Violence prevention: The evidence
World Health Organization. (2010). Geneva, Switzerland.


Intimate partner / domestic violence

Childhood family violence history and women’s risk for intimate partner violence and poor health
Bensley, L., Van Eenwyk, J., & Simmons, K. W. (2003). American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(1), 38–44.

Health consequences of intimate partner violence
Campbell, J. C. (2002). Lancet, 359(9314), 1331–1336.

The continuation of intimate partner violence from adolescence to young adulthood
Cui, M., Ueno, K., Gordon, M., & Fincham, F. D. (2013). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 75(2), 300–313.

Exposure to abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children: implications for health and social services
Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Edwards, V. J., & Williamson, D. F. (2002). Violence and Victims, 17(1), 3–18.

Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A 20-year prospective study
Ehrensaft, M.K., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E., Chen, H.N., & Johnson, J.G. (2003). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 71(4): 741-753.

WHO multi‐country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses
Garcia‐Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Watts, C., Ellsberg, M., & Heise, L. (2005). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Factors discriminating among profiles of resilience and psychopathology in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV)
Graham‐Bermann, S. A., Gruber, G., Howell, K. H., & Girz, L. (2009). Child Abuse and Neglect, 33(9), 648–660.

The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature
Holt, S., Buckley, H., & Whelan, S. (2008). Child Abuse and Neglect, 32(8), 797–810.

Influence of adult domestic violence on children's internalizing and externalizing problems: An environmentally informative twin study
Jaffee, S. R., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Arseneault, L. (2002). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(9), 1095–1103.

Profiling domestic violence—A multi‐country study
Kishor, S., & Johnson, K. (2004). Calverton, MD: ORC Macro.

No visible bruises: What we don’t know about domestic violence can kill us
Snyder, R.L. (2019). New York City: Bloomsbury

Findings from a community‐based program for battered women and their children
Sullivan, C. M., Bybee, D. I., & Allen, N. E. (2002). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(9), 915–936.

Youth violence

Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention – A Sourcebook for Community Action
Centers for Disease Control. (5 October 2009).

Community violence and youth: Affect, behavior, substance use, and academics
Cooley‐Strickland, M., Quille, T. J., Griffin, R. S., Stuart, E. A., Bradshaw, C. P., & Furr‐Holden, D. (2009). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12(2), 127–156.

Exploring intergenerational discontinuity in problem behavior: Bad parents with good children
Dong, B., & Krohn, M. D. (2015). Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 13(2), 99–122.

Exposure to violence and victimization and fighting behavior by urban Black-adolescents
DuRant, R.H., Pendergrast, R.A., & Cadenhead, C. (1994). Journal of Adolescent Health 15(4): 311-318.

Intentions to use violence among young adolescents
DuRant, R.H., Treiber, F., Goodman, E., & Woods, E.R. (1996). Pediatrics 98(6): 1104-1108.

The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention
Fang, X., Brown, D. S., Florence, C. S., & Mercy, J. A. (2012). Child Abuse and Neglect, 36(2), 156–165.

Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., … Marks, J. S. (1998). American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.

Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth
Garbino, J., Bradshaw, C.P., & Vorrasi, A. (2002). The Future of Children 12: 73-85.

Potential and perils of the early years: The need to integrate violence prevention and early child development (ECD+)
Lannen, P., & Ziswiler, M. (2014). Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(6), 625–628.

Pathways to peace: The transformative power of children and families
Leckman, J. F., Panter‐Brick, C., & Salah, R. (Eds.) (2014). (Vol. 15, J. Lupp, Series Ed.) Strüngmann Forum Reports. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation, and use dependent development of the brain: How states become traits
Perry, B. D., Pollard, R. A., Blakley, T. L., Baker, W. L., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Infant Mental Health Journal, 16(4), 271–291.

Childhood abuse and later medical disorders in women
Romans, S., Belaise, C., Martin, J., Morris, E., & Raffi, A. (2002). Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 71(3), 141–150.

Cost analysis of youth violence prevention
Sharp, A. L., Prosser, L. A., Walton, M., Blow, F. C., Chermack, S. T., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. (2014). Pediatrics, 133(3), 448–453.

Reactive aggression among maltreated children: The contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(4), 381–395.

Child abuse: Implications for child development and psychopathology
Wolfe, D. A. (1999). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Preventing youth violence: An overview of the evidence
World Health Organization. (2015). Geneva, Switzerland

Group violence intervention (focused deterrence) evaluations

Problem-oriented policing, deterrence, and youth violence: An evaluation of Boston’s Operation Ceasefire
Braga, A.A. (2001). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 38.

Disrupting illegal firearms markets in Boston: The effects of Operation Ceasefire on the Supply of New Handguns to Criminals
Braga, A.A. & Pierce, G.L. (November 2005). Criminology & Public Policy 4.

Pulling levers focused deterrence strategies and the prevention of gun homicide
Braga, A.A. (2008). Journal of Criminal Justice 36.

New approaches to the strategic prevention of gang and group-involved violence
Braga, A.A., Kennedy, D.M., Tita, G. (2002). Gangs in America, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. C. Ronald Huff, ed.

Testing a promising homicide reduction strategy: Re-assessing the impact of Indianapolis “pulling levers” intervention
Corasaro, N. & McGarrell, E.F. (2009). Journal of Experimental Criminology 5.

Lessons in preventing homicide
Dalton, E.E. (December 2003). Michigan State University.

Paving the way for Project Safe Neighborhoods: SACSI in 10 U.S. cities
Dalton, E.E. (April 2008). Research in Brief, National Institute of Justice.

Evaluation of SACSI in Winston-Salem: Engaging the community in a strategic analysis of youth violence
Easterling, D. (2003). Report to the US Department of Justice.

Reducing Gang Violence Using Focused Deterrence: Evaluating the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV)
Engel, R. (2011). University of Cincinnati Policing Institute.

Evaluation of the Durham Police Department’s S.T.A.R.S. Notification Program
Gathings, M.J. & Frabutt, J.M. (August 2005). Center for Youth, Family, and Community Partnerships. University of North Carolina Greensboro.

Final assessment of the strategic approaches to Community Safety Initiative in New Haven
Hartstone, E.C. & Richetelli, D.M. (2005). Report to the US Department of Justice.

Don’t Shoot: One Man, A Street Fellowship, and The End of Violence in Inner-City America
Kennedy, D.M. (2011). New York City: Bloomsbury.

Youth Violence in Boston: Gun Markets, Serious Youth Offenders, and a Use-Reduction Strategy
Kennedy, D.M., Piehl, A.M., & Braga, A.A. (1996). Law and Contemporary Problems 59.

Pulling levers: Getting deterrence right
Kennedy, D.M. (July 1997). National Institute of Justice Journal.

Homicide in Minneapolis: Research for Problem Solving
Kennedy, D.M. & Braga, A.A. (August 1998). Homicide Studies 2.

When Brute Force Fails: How to Have Less Crime and Less Punishment
Kleiman, M. (2010). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Reducing homicide through a “lever-pulling” strategy
McGarrell, E.F., Chermak, S., Wilson, J.M. (2006). Justice Quarterly 23.

Testing for structural breaks in the evaluation of programs
Piehl, A.M. (2003). Review of Economics and Statistics 85.

Deadly Consequences: How Violence is Destroying Our Teenage Population and a Plan to Begin Solving the Problem
Prothrow-Stith, D. & Weissman, M. (1993). New York: Harper Perennial.

Strategic approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI) in 10 U.S. cities: The building blocks for Project Safe Neighborhoods
Roehl, J. (n.d.). Report to the US Department of Justice.

Focused deterrence of high-risk individuals
Scott, M.S. (2017). Strategies for Policing Innovation: Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Response Guide Series No. 13. Center for Policing Innovation. Arizona State University.

Reducing gun violence: Operation Ceasefire in Los Angeles
Tita, G., Riley, J.K., and Greenwood, P. (2005). Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice.

From Boston to Boyle Heights: The process of prospects of a “Pulling Levers” strategy in a Los Angeles barrio
Tita, G., Riley, J.K., and Greenwood, P. (2003). S.H. Decker, ed.

The transmission of gun and other weapon-involved violence within social networks
Tracy M, Braga AA, Papachristos AV. Epidemiological Review (38)70–86.

Ending gang homicide: Deterrence can work
Wakeling, S. (February 2003). California Attorney General’s Office and California Health and Human Service Agency.

Cure violence / violence interrupters evaluations

The Effects of Cure Violence in the South Bronx and East New York, Brooklyn. In
Delgado, S.A., Alsabahi, L., Wolff, K., Alexander, N., Cobar, P., and Butts, J.A. (2017). Denormalizing Violence: A Series of Reports From the John Jay College Evaluation of Cure Violence Programs in New York City. New York, NY: Research and Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York.

Gun violence as a public health issue: How does the "Cure Violence" interrupter model work?
Luthern, A. (25 September 2019). Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.

Community Violence as a Population Health Issue: Proceedings of a Workshop
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Roundtable on Population Health Improvement. (2017). Chapter 5, Lessons Learned: Evaluating Community- and Hospital-Based Models and Initiatives. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

CeaseFire: A disease control approach to reduce violence and change behavior
Ransford, C.L., Kane, C., Slutkin, G. (n.d.). In Akers and Waltermauer eds. Epidemiological Criminology. London, UK: Routledge.

Evaluation of CeaseFire-Chicago
Skogan, W.S., Harnett, S.M., Bump, N., & DuBois, J. (2009). Chicago, IL: Northwestern University Institute for Policy Research.

Street by Street: Cross-Site Evaluation of the OJJDP Community-Based Violence Prevention Demonstration Program
Tomberg, Kathleen A. and Jeffrey A. Butts (2016). New York, NY: Research and Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York.

Ceasefire: A public health approach to reduce shooting and killings
Ritter, N. (2009). NIJ Journal 264.

Effects of Baltimore’s Safe Streets program on gun violence: A replication of Chicago’s CeaseFire program
Webster, D.W., Whitehill, J.M., Vernick, J.S., & Curriero, F.C. (2012). Journal of Urban Health.

Hospital-based violence intervention (Minneapolis Next Step program) evaluations

Hospital-Based Violence Interventions Work
Cooper, C., Eslinger, D.M., & Stolley, P.D. (2006). The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 61:534 –540.

Critical Care: The Important Role of Hospital-Based Violence Prevention Programs
Evans, D. & Vega, A. (May 2018). Denormalizing Violence: A Series of Reports From the John Jay College Evaluation of Cure Violence Programs in New York City. New York, NY: Research and Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York.

Community Violence as a Population Health Issue: Proceedings of a Workshop
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Roundtable on Population Health Improvement. (2017). Chapter 5, Lessons Learned: Evaluating Community- and Hospital-Based Models and Initiatives. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Hospital-based Violence Intervention: Practices and Policies to End the Cycle of Violence
National Network of Hospital-Based Violence Intervention Programs.

Post-Discharge Needs of Victims of Gun Violence in Chicago: A Qualitative Study
Patton D, Sodhi A, Affinati S, Lee J, Crandall M. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2019;34(1):135-155.

The role of police legitimacy in community safety

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