Lyndale Ave South Renewal – Creek to Crosstown
2001 - 2002
MCDA and Planning Support
Planning Phase I and Community Outreach
Note: Not the Gateway
March 26 Shared Vision Community Meeting
Lyndale Avenue Spring Clean-up
Spring Clean-up Report
June 11 Four Neighborhood Meeting
Phase I Report
Phase II - The Next Step
Update – October 2002
Update - May 2003
Update – July 2003
Fall - 2003
Update and Community Meeting - Winter - 2004
Update - May 2004
June 2004 Update
October/November 2004 – South Lyndale Development Workshops
Next Step – Master Planning
January/February - 2005
1st Community Meeting - May 24th
Planning Department Website
Planning Charrette - June 18th
2nd Open House - August 15th
3rd Open House - October 11th
Minneapolis Planning Commission
Minneapolis City Council Approval
Minneapolis City Council Approval
Three Spring meetings focused on gathering information about past planning efforts for Lyndale, collecting different ideas of what their task may encompass, and learning more about the City and County roles and jurisdiction over Lyndale Avenue South.
Through this work, the group identified four key issues:
- Each of the four neighborhoods that share Lyndale Avenue between Minnehaha Creek and the Crosstown must be involved. Efforts were made to bring in additional participants to ensure balanced involvement. Some of the members who are involved are experienced neighborhood activists and others are becoming involved in the neighborhood for the first time.
- This effort must focus on the entire stretch of Lyndale, not just the northern more commercial half or the southern residential/commercial/Hwy 121 area.
- The kind of vision/plan the group might accomplish can only be determined after additional research and discussion with the broader community. Only then will the group know where it should focus, be that on streetscape improvements in the right of way, private property enhancements, land use planning, and/or any other perspective for the future that the community may select.
- As the four neighborhoods get to know each other better, they will not only recognize their similarities and differences, but may also identify ways to help strengthen each other.
During the fall of 2001, the membership of the group solidified and set goals. At meetings in November and December, they decided to break their work into two phases:
Phase I will focus on setting a vision, values and goals that will serve as the bedrock of any future planning. The questions to be asked during this phase are:
- What is the community’s overall vision for Lyndale Avenue? As a commercial corridor? As a high volume thruway? As a residential neighborhood? Other?
- What are core community values that would be expressed through the vision? Family oriented? Pedestrian friendly? Convenient for commuters? Neighborhood amenities such as small shops? Other?
- What goals or benchmarks need to be set that will help the community achieve a vision that expresses its values? Building bike trails? Attracting new businesses? Enhancing store fronts? Widening boulevards? Other?
Phase II will then focus on how to implement the vision, values, and goals that emerge from Phase I. Depending on what the community decides this phase may or may not include the following:
- Ideas for a unified streetscape along the corridor
- Ways to enhance local businesses
- A long term proposal on the use of both residential and commercial land along the corridor
However, until Phase I is complete the objectives for Phase II will not be known.
In December 2001, the Minneapolis Community Development Agency awarded a grant of $10,000 to LASR-CC to fund its Phase I work, which will last from January to June 2002. In addition, each of the four sponsoring neighborhood associations agreed to match the MCDA grant with contributions of $2,500 each. These funds will be used to hire a facilitator to work with the task force, communicate with the surrounding community, and hold community-wide meetings.
Also, in December, the four sponsoring neighborhoods, on behalf of LASR-CC, asked the Minneapolis Planning Department for guidance on how they should work so that any plan they complete will be considered by the City as either policy or guidelines. Fred Neet, Minneapolis Planning, attended a meeting of LASR-CC to inform the task force that the City supports the procedures LASR-CC is following and will be open to considering their final work product for adoption as policy or guidelines by the City.
In January, four members of the task force interviewed several professional facilitators to work with the task force. The facilitator would help the task force set an agenda to complete its work on vision, values and goals and help them work toward achieving it.
The subcommittee selected Linda Alton and Jonathan Bucki who began to work with the group on February 12.
As LASR-CC began its Phase I work, it decided that its first priority was to bring the entire Lyndale community into the process. Before further discussion on vision, values, and goals advanced, they took two steps to invite the entire community to participate in this effort:
- Sent a mailing to Lyndale commercial property owners and business owners to make them aware of this effort and invite them to participate. View the letter to business and property owners.
- Planned a community meeting for all residents of Kenny, Lynnhurst, Tangletown, and Windom to begin discussing the community’s vision, values and goals for Lyndale Ave.
That community meeting will be:
Tuesday, March 26
Lynnhurst Community Center
50 th St. and Minnehaha Parkway
6:00 – 7:00 Open House
7:00 – 9:00 Community Discussion
All residents are invited to participate in this meeting. See the postcard/poster that was distributed around all four neighborhoods.
Many residents remember the Lyndale Gateway, in the mid to late 1900s, which was supposed to create a vision for Lyndale Avenue. Beginning with one neighborhood’s interest in planting flowers, the Gateway culminated in a design charette that focused on re-routing Trunk Highway 121 and possibly building housing in land that is part of the "triangle" that exists were Lyndale Ave. and Hwy. 121 diverge. Some residents have asked about the status of that effort.
For a variety of reasons, the ideas that came out of that process were never adopted by the four neighborhoods or the City of Minneapolis. Therefore, the ideas/plans proposed as part of the Gateway process were abandoned.
Although the Gateway did not move forward, there was still interest in developing a future vision for Lyndale. This time, however, it was important to all concerned that the process be driven and led by the four neighborhoods that share Lyndale, not by government agencies. LASR-CC is the group that emerged to lead this effort.
Therefore, LASR-CC is not a successor to the Gateway process. Rather it is a fresh start with a similar goal – strengthening Lyndale Avenue by creating a community supported development plan.
Over 100 people attended the March 26 shared vision meeting. Each of the four neighborhoods was well represented as was the business community. From 6:00 to 7:00 pm, participants were able to attend an Open House that featured:
- A history of Lyndale Avenue since the 1930s
- Hennepin County’s plans to re-engineer Lyndale Avenue south of Minnehaha Creek beginning on 2006
- A slide show about present-day Lyndale Avenue
Three handouts were distributed during the Open House:
- A description of LASR-CC and its work
- Trivia questions about Lyndale’s history
- A survey for residents to complete and return (if you have not yet completed the survey, please download it to complete and return it to Lyndale Avenue South Renewal c/o Ward 13 Office)
At 7:00, attendees gathered in Burroughs gym. They self-organized into small groups and were guided by professional facilitators to consider individually and in groups the following:
- Visualize Lyndale Avenue ten years from now. What would it look like?
Then, they were asked:
- Consider how that vision was achieved. What guidelines and standards were followed? How was the effort to create change achieved? What values would guide the community toward achieving its vision?
Each small group then shared their top two values with the whole group and they were recorded. The task force has collected all that information to review and present to the community with its findings in June.
The task force has scheduled three more meetings at which it will review the information received on March 26 and prepare goals and objectives to present to all four neighborhoods in June. In addition, they plan on holding a Lyndale Avenue Clean Up and a Celebration to present the goals and objectives that emerge from Phase I.
All meetings are open to the public. They begin at 7:00 pm and are held at Windom Community Center, 58 th Street and Wentworth Avenue.
April 9 Shared Vision Review
April 30 Long-Term Goals and Objectives
May 14 Goals and Objectives Review
The date is still to be determined. If you would like to receive more information about this event, please send a letter or email to LASR-CC c/o of the Ward 13 Office.
Don’t' Miss the Lyndale Avenue Clean-up
Come help clean up Lyndale Avenue. From 9:00 to 12:00 on May 18th, volunteers from Windom, Kenny, Tangletown and Lynnhurst will be spiffing up the Avenue.
Check in begins at 8:45 at the Coldwell Banker Burnet Building at 55th and Lyndale Ave S. Food is being supplied by local businesses.
In the spring of 2001, a group of residents from Kenny, Lynnhurst, Tangletown and Windom formed to create a shared, future vision for Lyndale Avenue South from Minnehaha Creek to Highway 62.
Named Lyndale Avenue South Renewal – Creek to Crosstown (LASR-CC), this effort is:
- Led by participating neighborhood representatives/residents
- Sponsored by the four neighborhood associations – Kenny Neighborhood Association, Lynnhurst Neighborhood Association, Tangletown Neighborhood Association, and Windom Community Council
- Endorsed by the City of Minneapolis – Planning Department, Mayor’s Office, and the Ward 11 and 13 offices, as well as the Neighborhood Revitalization Project (NRP) and the Minneapolis Community Development Agency (MCDA). The NRP neighborhood liaison to all four neighborhoods and the aides to Council Members Benson and Lane provide staff support to LASR-CC.
About 20 residents joined in the clean-up. Participants picked weeds and garbage all along Lyndale south of Creek as well as in the Hwy 121 area. In addition, Borton Volve provided a bobcat to sweep all the sidewalks and the City of Minneapolis did a special street sweeping of Lyndale. Thanks to all who took part.
June 11, 2002
Richfield United Methodist Church
58th and Lyndale Ave
Over 70 people attended this meeting to learn what ideas had emerged from the March 26 four neighborhood meeting and what that indicated for a future vision for Lyndale. The steering committee took all the information expressed at the March 26 meeting and in surveys returned to them and crystallized it into a few key points (review the complete survey results).
Residents at the meeting were first asked to visualize a future Lyndale Avenue. These ideas were then shared with the larger group. Many of the ideas presented reflected the core values the steering committee had identified after the March hearing. The steering committee then introduced the core values they had outlined based on the March meeting and surveys. The three key vision points were:
Blend the area’s natural beauty, existing resources and future development to create attractive well-maintained spaces with a distinct sense of place.
Encourage a neighborhood friendly transportation environment that emphasizes pedestrian activities while accommodating vehicles.
Foster neighborhood focused businesses and a development climate that meets the needs of all residents.
For each of the three points, they outlined some goals that could be accomplished in 1, 3, and 5 years. For example, two 1 year goals for vision point 2 were paint crosswalks and plant flowers.
Participants were then asked to reflect on these points in small groups and determine if they had other ideas to contribute or adjust – along the 1, 3, and 5 year timeframe. Each group then presented their ideas -- many new ideas were presented and some ideas were presented by multiple groups.
The meeting concluded when attendees were asked to vote on which goals they believed were most important. This was done by posting dots next to goals they preferred.
The steering committee is now reviewing all that data and will share it with the community when complete. This information will also guide Phase II of this project.
The three vision points and the accompanying goals will be used to help the steering committee begin Phase II – the more concrete portion of this project. As they review issues such as streetscape, business development, land use, etc., they will measure each idea against the vision points to see if the idea helps achieve a goal.
For example, if they consider the value of installing pedestrian level street lamps (such as those recently installed at 50 th and Bryant), they will ask if those lamps will further the goals. In this case, they may determine that more and lower level lighting will enhance the pedestrian atmosphere of the Lyndale community and therefore fulfills vision point 2.
This phase is expected to begin this fall. Although the steering committee is committed to continuing its regular check-ins with the community through meetings, surveys, and other communication, they will also need more volunteers.
Please think about what interests you most about Lyndale and think about volunteering. If you are interested in learning more and/or becoming a volunteer, please call Julia Blount in the Ward 13 office or John Dybvig in the Ward 11 office. They can answer your questions and pass your name onto the steering committee.
The facilitators who assisted LASR-CC during Phase I have completed a report reviewing the work and findings of Phase I.
To review the complete Lyndale Avenue South Revitalization report.
LASR-CC met in September and October to discuss how to organize their Phase II work. They have outlined three subcommittees: Neighborhood Business Development, Planning and Urban Design, and Transportation and Safety. Each of those committees is currently developing work plans to achieve the goals outlined by the community during meetings last spring.
Volunteers are needed for all three committees. Please contact the Ward 13 or 11 office if you would like to consider joining. Or, come to the next LASR-CC meeting on November 20 at 7:00 pm at Windom Community Center (58th and Wentworth).
LASR-CC is engaged in three current projects:
The Second Annual Lyndale Avenue Clean-Up on May 17. Join other residents and businesses as they clean-up this important neighborhood center. You can check in at the Coldwell Banker office at 55th and Lyndale, from 8:00 am to 12:00 noon.
The Name the Corridor Contest. As part of a new vision for the Lyndale South corridor, LASR-CC would like to give the corridor a greater sense of identity. The committee is sponsoring a contest to find the best new name for Lyndale Avenue south of Minnehaha Creek. If you would like to enter, see the Lyndale Corridor naming entry form.
Words into Action. The committee is currently doing research in to what needs to be done to begin work on a comprehensive planning process for the corridor. They are meeting with different planning groups to understand what has been done in other neighborhoods and cities as well as what is involved in the process. Ultimately, the committee would like to work with a planning group that can take the ideas developed by the community at the four-community meetings last year and put them into a workable vision that would guide development along Lyndale Avenue.
In July, the LASR-CC committee issued a request for proposal (RFP) to land use and design firms. The RFP requested that interested firms submit proposals to work with LASR-CC and its member communities on developing a vision and guidelines for the streetscape of Lyndale Avenue. All proposals must be submitted to the committee by August 1 and a decision will be made by September.
Name the Corridor
The ideas are in and the final vote is about to begin! Since last winter, residents have been submitting their ideas for what to name the Lyndale community south of Minnehaha Creek. Over 200 entries were received. A list of finalists is being developed and residents will be able to vote on the finalists. You can vote for your choice at the Borton Jazz Festival (on Lyndale Avenue) on August 16.
In September, LASR-CC selected SEH to develop a streetscape proposal for Lyndale south of the Creek. SEH was selected as part of a formal bidding process conducted under City auspices and requirements. SEH is a local planning and design firm who has worked throughout Minneapolis and the Twin Cities region.
From September to January, SHE will meet with community members to gain their feedback and ideas about what should be considered in creating the design plans. On October 14, SEH attended the October meeting of the recently-formed Lyndale Avenue Business Association. Twenty-nine representatives from businesses south of Minnehaha Creek participated.
A meeting for residents of Kenny, Lynnhurst, Tangletown, and Windom is currently being planned so that SEH can receive ideas and answer questions from the local community. The date of that event will be announced shortly.
In January, SEH will present the streetscape plan. The plan will include both ideas for streetscape improvements and amenities on public land. Some of the ideas it may include are suggestions for street lights, sidewalks, and/or greenspace. The plan will also include design ideas and guidelines for commercial property owners who want to upgrade their properties with external improvements.
LASR-CC is also continuing to work on its request for proposals from firms interested in working with the community to develop an overall vision for the future development on Lyndale Avenue. More information on that phase of LASR-CC’s work will be coming forward over the winter.
So that all residents would have the option of participating in the streetscape process, LASR-CC decided to schedule the community meeting with SEH until after the holidays.
After considering community meetings about the 35W/Crosstown effort that were scheduled in January and February, the community meeting with SEH, the consultants for the streetscape plan, has been scheduled for March 3.
The details are:
Wednesday, March 3
Lynnhurst Community Center
50 th and Minnehaha Pkwy
6:30 – 8:30 pm
About 30 people attended the March 3 meeting. Attendees were given an opportunity to review the plans as outlined by the consultants. Then, in small groups, they worked and discussed the plans and how they could be adjusted. The consultants from SEH took all the feedback they received and the meeting and refined their recommendations for a new Lyndale streetscape.
LASR-CC and SEH will unveil the recommended plans for Lyndale at a community meeting on May 20. Residents are encouraged to attend to review the plans and learn about the next steps for Lyndale Avenue.
Thursday, May 20
Richfield United Methodist Church
5835 Lyndale Avenue South
About 20 people attended the May 20 community where LASR-CC and the landscape consultant, SEH, presented the proposed plans to improve the streetscape of Lyndale Avenue.
Attendees had the opportunity to review the plan that was presented on large presentation boards and ask questions of both the designers and LASR-CC members. Most of those present indicated that they liked the plan. They asked questions about how the plan would be implemented and the timeline for both streetscape improvements and the reconstruction of the avenue. The final report from SEH outlines their recommendations and includes several overviews and schematics for their recommendations.
Now that LASR-CC and the City have received the SEH report, they are working to identify sources of funding for streetscape and consider timelines for implementation.
The next step in the Lyndale vision process will be the initiation of a land use master plan for the corridor. The City has hired an engineering firm to study Highway 121 and determine if there are alternate layouts for the road that would facilitate traffic movements and open up land for alternate development.
As many people know, the future of the Hwy 121 has been debated on and off for several years. With improvements planned for both Lyndale Avenue and 35W/62, the City believes this is the best time to study this area. The engineering firm has been asked to look at the current layout of the land as well as some alternatives and determine how traffic would be affected by changes in the layout. Depending on the results, the City will consider including the Hwy 121 in the mast plan. The City expects a report from the engineer by the end of the summer. Based on the results of that study, the City and LASR-CC will take the next steps to begin a master planning process.
In October and November, LASR-CC joined with the Center for Neighborhoods to present the South Lyndale Development workshops. These three workshops, held at Richfield United Methodist Church, educated residents about development issues including zoning, economics, and site and project selection. The workshops were held:
October 9 Livable Communities: An Overview
Participants learned about the factors that help communities thrive and then discussed this issue and how these ideas translate to the Lyndale corridor.
October 26 Development ABCs
Attendees participated in four small-group sessions that encouraged them to explore different aspects of planning and development. The stations included an exercise to understand the economics of different types of buildings, questions and answers about zoning and planning issues, a visual preference survey about building types and styles, and urban development and amenities and how they affect development.
November 9 Nuts and Bolts of Master Planning
Attendees learned the basics about master planning and how the City and LASR-CC will conduct a master planning effort in 2005. They also heard from development professionals about trends in development and how development choices are made.
If you would like to learn more about the workshops, visit the project website at www.southlyndale.org.
The next step in LASR-CC’s work is its most important to date. LASR-CC will join with the City of Minneapolis to develop a master plan for development/revitalization along Lyndale.
The goal of master planning is to work with all the stakeholders in a community to develop a vision for development that encompasses community values and can be used to guide and make future development decisions. The master plan that is produced is used by the City to decide whether to support and/or approve development proposals. It is used by the local community to help guide its dialogue about whether to support development options. And, it is used by developers to help them understand the type of projects that are being sought and more likely to be supported by the community and City.
Stakeholders in the Lyndale corridor include residents of Kenny, Lynnhurst, Tangletown, and Windom, the Lyndale Avenue business and commercial property owners, the City of Minneapolis and Hennepin County.
The master planning will be a joint project of the City of Minneapolis and LASR-CC. It is the third major step in LASR-CC’s work and will build on the previous two – the values statement and the streetscape plan.
Before the final documents and recommendations are prepared, a public process will be undertaken to gain ideas, insight, and feedback from stakeholders. This will include community meetings as well as other outreach methods that have yet to be finalized.
Preliminary Timeline for the Master Planning
Late 2004 The City of Minneapolis issues a request for proposals (RFP) that invites land use firms to submit proposals to be the City’s consultant on the project
Early 2005 The City, in consultation with LASR-CC, will select a land use firm that will be the project consultant who works with LASR-CC and the City, manages the planning process, makes recommendations, and issues the final report
Mid 2005 The master planning process will begin. Opportunities for public input will be announced on this website, via mail, and other methods to notify the community. The process will include both opportunities to provide input as well as an opportunity to see the final report and recommendations before they are submitted to the City.
Later 2005 Adoption of the master plan by the City of Minneapolis.
More detailed announcements and information will be provided as they become available. Please contact the ward office for more information or questions.
The Planning Division of the Community Development and Economic Development department issues a request for proposals inviting land use planning firms to submit proposals for conducting a land use planning process along Lyndale Avenue, south of Minneahaha Creek.
Eight local and national firms responded to the request for proposals and submitted their ideas for conducting land use planning along Lyndale. A joint committee of City staff and LASR-CC members reviewed the proposals and interviewed three firms. The committee selected Minneapolis-based Hoisington Koegler Group Inc. (HKGi) to provide land use consulting services to the City and LASR-CC.
The contract between HKGi and the City is expected to be completed and voted on by City Council by early April. At that time, City staff, LASR-CC, and HKGi will work together to develop a timeline for completing the planning process.
To develop a successful vision for Lyndale Avenue, participation from community businesses and residents will be essential. Over the next few months, three community meetings will be held to solicit input and ideas from local stakeholders. The three meetings are tentatively scheduled for May, August, and October. Stakeholders will be notified by mail as well as through this website as to the date, time, and location of these meetings.
Over 50 residents and business owners attended the first community meeting on May 24 at Richfield United Methodist Church. Attendees learned about the planning process and began to give their feedback on what they considered the best parts of the Lyndale corridor and those that need the most improvement.
All property owners on Lydndale as well as those five blocks east and west of Lyndale Avenue were notified of this meeting by postcards mailed to their addresses.
The Planning Department has established a project website about this project. Please visit to review materials and schedules for this project
On June 18, members of LASR-CC, the Lyndale business community, HKGi, and City staff attended an all day charrette during which they reviewed economic and demographic data about the corridor and began to brainstorm about possible visions for the corridor.
Staff from HKGi coordinated these ideas with the feedback they had received at the May 24 th open house to begin developing ideas for the corridor.
Close to 100 people attended this second open house at which staff from HKGi presented two preliminary plans for Lyndale Avenue.
One plan proposed strengthening the node of businesses currently centered around 54 th and Lyndale, adding a similar node at 58 th and Lyndale, where a rebuilt Hwy 121 is proposed to meet 58 th and Lyndale, add a small green park just north of 58 th Street, and build housing and mixed use buildings along the rest of the corridor. Single-family houses were proposed to be built along the western side of Highway 121, if the road is moved to the east.
The second plan proposed a Main Street concept along which housing and commercial uses would exist side by side along the entire length of the corridor. The plans for Highway 121 would be the same as in the first scenario.
To review both plans, visit the South Lyndale page of the Planning Department website .
Attendees overwhelmingly preferred the first option, so HKGi proceeded to further develop that concept.
All residents within five blocks east and west of Lyndale were mailed this postcard inviting them to the open house.
At this final open house, a more refined version of the 54 th and 58 th Street node plans was presented to over 100 residents in attendance. Residents had the opportunity to review the plan and ask questions to help increase their understanding of the plan.
All residents within five blocks east and west of Lyndale were mailed this postcard inviting them to the open house.
To begin the process of formally adopting the Lyndale corridor plan by the City of Minneapolis, the Minneapolis Planning Commission considered the plan for approval.
After preliminary presentations of the plan at their non-voting committee of the whole meetings, the Commission voted unanimously to approve the plan. Several members commented on the quality of the plan and the strong neighborhood input during the development process.
Among the recommendations adopted by the Planning Commission was the recommendation that the City plan to move Highway 121. Despite years of discussion of this idea, this was the first time any City body made a formal comment on moving and redeveloping Highway 121.
The next step in the adoption process is approval of the plan by the Minneapolis City Council. It is expected that the Council’s Zoning and Planning committee will review the plan in late January or early February. It will then be forwarded to the full Council for a formal vote on the plan. Once approved by Council, the Lyndale plan will be official policy of the City of Minneapolis.
Minneapolis City Council Approval
In January of 2006, the City Council passed the South Lyndale Avenue Master Plan, culminating years of hard work by residents, neighborhood organizations, and city staff. The Master Plan set a vision and strategy for future development along the corridor. The next steps include incorporating the new plan into the city’s Comprehensive Plan and City Planning staff completing a zoning study to determine the best way to ensuring the area’s zoning matches the new Master Plan.
Update: Spring 2007
Over the last year the City’s Community Planning and Economic Development staff has been developing recommendations for rezoning along Lyndale Avenue South between Minnehaha Creek and the Crosstown Highway. This work is being done as a means to implement recommendations in the South Lyndale Corridor Master Plan which was adopted by the City Council in January 2006.
By clicking on the link below, you will find a map that shows the rezoning study area, the area that is being recommended for a pedestrian oriented overlay district, and several parcels for which a change in the primary zoning is being recommended. The Pedestrian Oriented Overlay District is intended to preserve and encourage the pedestrian character of commercial areas by regulating building orientation, building design, accessory parking facilities, and automobile-oriented uses. The changes to the primary zoning vary by parcel, but are intended to focus commercial uses at the intersections of 58 th Street and Lyndale Avenue, and 54 th Street and Lyndale Avenue.
An information meeting was held on June 12, 2007, at the Richfield United Methodist Church to allow the public to learn more about the rezoning recommendations.
The City Planning Commission is scheduled to hold a public hearing on this matter on Monday, August 13, 2007. Property owners within 350’ of any parcel recommended for a zoning change and affected neighborhood associations will receive a formal notice of that hearing closer to the date.
The meeting site is wheelchair accessible. If participants need other disability related accommodations, such as a sign language interpreter or materials in alternative format, they can contact Krista Bergert at (612) 673-5015 by June 5 th. Krista can also arrange an interpreter if needed.
Please feel free to call Amanda Arnold at (612) 673-3242 with any questions or concerns. You can also find more information at South Lyndale Rezoning Study.
Last updated Apr. 25, 2012